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Test & Measurement

T&M Trends and Analysis

The Nuts and Bolts of Antenna Measurement

Ever wonder how wireless signal gets to a specific area? Connections and networks live and breathe by antennas. If an antenna goes down, the wireless network would be in trouble. Thus, it’s extremely important to test antennas! Antenna measurement techniques refers to the testing of antennas to ensure that the antenna meets specifications or simply to characterize it. Typical parameters of antennas are gain, radiation pattern, beamwidth, polarization, and impedance.
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The Importance of Conformance Test Systems

Conformance testing is designed to determine if implementation meets the requirements of a standard or specification. There are many types of testing including testing for performance, robustness, behavior, functions and interoperability. Although conformance testing may include some of these kinds of tests, it has one fundamental difference — the requirements or criteria for conformance must be specified in the standard or specification. According to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), this is usually in a conformance clause or conformance statement, but sometimes some of the criteria can be found in the body of the specification. Some standards have subsequent documentation for the test methodology and assertions to be tested. If the criteria or requirements for conformance are not specified, there can be no conformance testing.
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The Ins and Outs of LTE Protocol Testing

Long term evolution (LTE) is the standard for today’s wireless networks, and replaces third generation (3G) technology. LTE technology is a based on a 3GPP standard that provides for a downlink speed of up to 150 megabits per second (Mbps) and an uplink speed of up to 50 Mbps. LTE protocol is held to 3GPP’s high standards and must be tested accordingly. This provides the need for LTE protocol testing equipment.
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How to Use Bluetooth and WLAN Testers

Once a wireless phenomenon, Bluetooth is part of our everyday lives. Whether you utilize it to talk on the phone in your car or you’ve mistakenly thought someone was addressing you at the grocery store only to see that little device in their ear, Bluetooth is a common technology for today’s wireless user.  Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) functions similarly, proving network connections in more focused areas. Like any wireless network, these need to function properly and to ensure they do bluetooth and WLAN testers have been created.
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Analyzing Cable and Antenna Analyzers

In today’s test and measurement world, many different devices and methods are necessary. For connection testing, this includes cable and antenna analyzers. Cable analyzers verify the electrical connections in a cable or other wired assembly. Cable analyzers typically consist of a source of electric current, a volt meter and a switching matrix. The cable analyzer may also have a microcontroller along with a display that automates the process and shows testing results.
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What is LTE Carrier Aggregation Testing?

According to the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), carrier aggregation is used in LTE-Advanced in order to increase the bandwidth, and thereby increase the bitrates. Because of this, it’s important to understand what is LTE carrier aggregation testing. Because it is important to keep backward compatibility with R8 and R9 mobiles the aggregation is of R8/R9 carriers. Carrier aggregation can be used for both FDD and TDD.
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Comparing GSM Test Equipment

Wireless network testing is no mundane task. It involved thorough thought, procedures and most of all, high-end equipment. This equipment differs depending on the type of network that is being tested. First, let’s examine the GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) and compare a few different types of GSM test equipment.To give you an idea, compare different GSM testing devices from various manufacturers. We’ve started by listing a few below.
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3GPP Conformance Testing Key Factors and Requirements for 3GPP Conformance Testing

Conformance testing is designed to help eliminate problems with user equipment that would would impact the functioning and performance of wireless networks. 3GPP is the body that has set the standards by which equipment is both designed and tested in order to meet those standards. OEMs, chipset and software component vendors, test houses and network operators all make use of 3GPP conformance testing, in addition to other tests such as carrier acceptance testing — which requires that a device meet an additional set of conditions set by the mobile carriers themselves before they will allow it to be sold and operate on their networks.

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eNodeB Simulator How is an eNodeB simulator used?

eNodeB (enhanced Node B) simulators are an important piece of test networks that are used for a variety of user equipment tests. eNodeB simulators run as only one part of a simulated networks, so that interactions among the Radio Access Network and Evolved Packet Core can be tested as well as interactions between eNodeBs in LTE.

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Passive Intermodulation BasicsHow it Affects Network Performance

Passive intermodulation (PIM) is a big concern for wireless providers because of the negative effect it can have on network performance. In active devices, PIM occurs when signals at two or more frequencies mix with each other in a non-linear manner to produce spurious signals. PIM is caused by a multitude of factors present in the RF signal path. These include poor mechanical contact, presence of ferrous contents in connectors and metals, and contact between two unmatched metals. PIM spurious signal, which falls in the up link band, can degrade call quality and reduce the capacity of a wireless system. [1]
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LTE Drive Test Test Types and Parameters for LTE Driving Testing

LTE drive tests are an important part of how wireless carriers determine whether their networks are performing well — and get a glimpse into their competitors’ network performance. There are multiple types of LTE drive tests, as well as specific parameters and requirements that should be met for drive tests.

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Low PIM CablesEssential for PIM Testing

Until recently, PIM (Passive Intermodulation Distortion was only a concern for wireless networks, and ultimately, the wireless user. Today, cable manufacturers are involved as certain low PIM cables are necessary for maintaining and testing this annoyance and potential service inhibitor.
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Utilizing a PIM Tester RentalA Cheaper Option for a Necessary Method

If you’re well-versed in today’s wireless industry, you know Passive Intermodulation (PIM) is a big part of keeping wireless networks up and running, with the ability to meet the high data demands of today’s wireless users. PIM testing, however is not cheap making the PIM tester rental option more and more attractive/feasible.
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PIM Testing CertificationWhat You Need to Know

Passive Intermodulation (PIM) testing is no stranger to the wireless industry. In fact, it is a standard for radio site commissioning and certification. PIM’s history dates back to the beginning days of radio communication and has become a major performance issue for wireless carriers in recent years. Because of its longevity and subsequent effect, PIM testing is necessary and therefore certain PIM testing certification has been put in place.
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LTE User Equipment TestingNot for the Meek

When it comes to Long Term Evolution (LTE), it’s all about the user experience and therefore, user equipment testing is extremely important. LTE is cutting edge in terms of speed and network performance, but according to Aeroflex, in any real-life mobile communications network there will be considerable degradation of the signal transmitted between the base station and the handset or other user equipment (UE).
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LTE TestingWhat’s It All about?

The arrival of Long Term Evolution (LTE) brought significantly different wireless network capabilities. Today’s wireless user wants and expects superior service and performance. To make sure this happens, extensive and frequent network testing needs to be done. And when it comes to LTE testing, nothing can be spared. Plus, with the quality expectations of mobile users on the rise, service providers need to know their network infrastructure can handle burgeoning traffic loads and ever-more-complex application traffic without compromising performance or security. This type of testing, however, can become extremely expensive and inconvenient. Wireless network operators must find innovative, and affordable ways to test their networks, as it will become more and more part of everyday life.

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Understanding PIM TestingHow to Conduct PIM Tests

Passive Intermodulation (PIM) is becoming more and more important as wireless users demand data, with high speeds. It affects network speed and performance, therefore, needs to be monitored, making PIM testing a basic requirement especially today.
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LTE Antenna Test CompleteNext step, 5G?

In the United States, Long Term Evolution (LTE) is well-established. When it comes to testing, at this point an LTE antenna test would be for maintenance only, not for initial performance. Yes, some operators are still in the process of launching widespread service, but testing for performance and capabilities is basically a thing of the past. When operators were testing their service companies like Spirent, Azimuth Systems, 7 Layers and Pulse provided the products and services necessary to test performance of LTE networks that were being built. Today, the test for maintenance and ongoing performance. But, if anything, the United States and various international wireless operators and device manufacturers are looking ahead, to 5G testing. Some countries, however, have been slower to launch 4G/LTE services, so they are still undergoing LTE antenna tests.

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